ECA has carried out energy and water studies for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a whole (such as the upstream and downstream gas-to-power SSA studies), for sub-regions (such as the SADC Regional Energy Access study and the Cubango-Okavango basin study) and for around 25 individual SSA countries, such as minigrid studies in Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania, electricity planning studies in Malawi, Nigeria and Zimbabwe and water tariff studies in Malawi, Sierra Leone, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Our SSA work is a combination of policy and institutional studies and quantitative analytic work.

Our focus is both on advising on major infrastructure investments (e.g. gas, LNG, water, mining and power) as well as designing infrastructure investment programmes to enhance access and provide sustainable and affordable service delivery for the majority of the population.



Cubango-Okavango multi-sector investment opportunity analysis (MSIOA) study

Building on past studies for the basin organisation OKACOM, the MSIOA study sought to determine a development pathway to meet the national development needs and poverty reduction objectives of the member states (Angola, Namibia and Botswana), without compromising the ecosystem services of the basin and diminishing the global value of the Okavango Delta. The study involved developing integrated economic, hydrological and environmental modelling and working with stakeholders to strengthen regional cooperation in the basin.

Design and establishment of urban water regulator, Uganda

This project objective was to establish an autonomous urban water regulator for Uganda, to ensure that water supply is both financially sustainable and affordable for consumers through setting appropriate tariff structures and other regulatory mechanisms. ECA reviewed the current water sector regulatory framework, comparable frameworks from other countries, prepared a business plan and financing strategy, and drafted the required legal frameworks for establishing the regulator.

Tunisia SEMED Model PPA, Tunisia

ECA advised on the legal, technical and bankability implications of the Law, the FiT Regulation and the model Power Purchase Agreement, as well as drawing up a model PPA for independent investors.

Zambia sanitation regulation and tariffs

ECA worked with the water sector regulator, NWASCO, to develop a strategy for regulating sanitation services in Zambia. Both on site and sewered sanitation services were included in the recommendations, bringing NWASCO to the forefront of sanitation regulation. The project included a significant capacity-building component.

Implementation plan for solar rural electrification, Djibouti

ECA advised the Government of Djibouti and the World Bank on the design and roll out of a solar electrification programme in rural areas. We conducted an international best practice review, designed a pilot programme for a solar mini grid system and drafted the necessary documents required for the successful implementation of the recommended programme.

Electricity tariff study, Rwanda

ECA prepared a Report for the EBRD, assessing the electricity and gas regulatory and market frameworks with the aim of benchmarking them against international standards (particularly the EU), providing a clear analysis of the progress of reform and identifying gaps as well as future reform needs.

Gas to power investments in Sub Saharan Africa

We reviewed the power demand and generation expansion plans of all 47 Sub Saharan African (SSA) countries for use in a power dispatch model, utilised for estimating the demand for gas in power generation in each country through to 2035. A costing model was then used to compare the economics of transmitting power generated at the gas resource by transmission line to gas by pipeline versus power stations located in the demand centres.

Africa economic and institutional advisory services: power and mining in Africa

The Africa Power & Mining study, for the World Bank, sought to investigate options for the mining sector to become more reliant on the national grid for its power needs, thereby opening up options for exploiting large generation options with economies of scale and strengthening the national transmission system. The goal is to reduce power costs for the mines, while at the same time increasing the availability of power for the nation as a whole. The study included case studies of 8 countries (Guinea, Mauritania, Mozambique, Tanzania, Cameroon, DRC, Ghana and Zambia). The World Bank published a consolidated report that included other research entitled The Power of the Mine.

Water sector investment analysis, Zimbabwe

ECA reviewed investment in the water sector and developed an investment planning model to rank projects by economic returns ranked to identify projects which will have the greatest impact for the funding available. Funding options were identified to match the expected risk-financial return profiles of the projects.

Lilongwe Water Board (LWB) tariff and willingness to pay study

ECA reviewed LWB’s tariffs in the context of a proposed new water supply dam, examining the extent to which the tariff could cover the capital cost. Structure of tariffs was also reviewed. For low income households without in-house connections, the advantages of having prepayment meter standpipes as an alternative to conventional kiosks was analysed in detail.

Electricity tariffs, Swaziland

ECA assisted The Swaziland Energy Regulatory Authority in developing a tariff support mechanism (subsidy framework) and a connection charge policy for Swaziland.

LPG feasibility and strategy, Kenya

ECA carried out a market appraisal of the feasibility of an LPG import and bottling facility in Mombasa to supply Kenya and neighbouring countries, plus an assessment of institutional arrangements for distribution of LPG throughout Kenya.