Advice on Water from Economic Consulting Associates


ECA’s decentralised energy sector service supports the growth of grid-connected prosumers who can help drive the energy transition by expanding clean energy generation and covers both developed and emerging markets.

Our work reflects the wide-ranging nature of the decentralised energy space.

Among our areas of work are:

  • Promoting uptake of rooftop solar as part of the transition, in an equitable manner which mitigates the potential negative impacts on lower-income households.
  • Developing market-based approaches to integrating decentralised energy into grids, including e-mobility, behind-the-meter storage, local flexibility markets, and demand-side response.
  • Linking distributed generation to other aspects of the energy transition, such as the interaction between expanding e-mobility and the ability to use electric vehicle charging to manage variable generation.

Services we provide include:

  • Policy advice, particularly on the desirable role of distributed generation in national energy system plans.
  • Regulatory design, including net metering and billing, and requirements for grid connection.
  • Financial and economic appraisal of distributed energy investments and programmes, including potential positive and negative benefits on participating and non-participating households.

For more information please contact our practice lead Andrew Tipping.

Image of Andrew Tipping, Technical Director at ECA



Rooftop solar policy and net metering tariffs, Fiji

Energy Fiji Limited contracted ECA to advise on preparing and implementing a new rooftop solar policy, including calculating cost-reflective customer charges, assessing utility revenue impacts, and defining both net metering and gross metering offerings.

Clean energy plan, Mongolia

ECA advised on developing a clean heat supply plan for peri-urban ger areas in Ulaanbaatar. The clean heat supply plan sets out how to transition to clean and sustainable alternative heating options, including green district heating, renewable electricity supply, and heat pumps.

Market assessment for distributed generation, Southern Africa

ECA provided the IFC with a review of the existing legal and regulatory frameworks for small-scale distributed generation deployment and tariff regimes focused primarily on solar PV in the commercial and industrial sectors in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Options for growing rooftop solar, including new business models, Thailand

ECA advised Thailand’s Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA), the Bangkok distribution utility, on options to incorporate growth in rooftop solar generation. This included an assessment of the potential for MEA to become a supplier itself, to use solar generation for arbitrage purposes and to charge for value-added services (eg, virtual storage using the grid). ECA also advised on pricing network access and wheeling services to protect the interests of existing customers.

Electricity tariff design, Jamaica

As part of a national tariff design study, ECA provided expert advice on applicable tariff approaches for net metering, electric vehicles, smart metering, and energy storage, an assessment of rate design options, and an implementation plan for the proposed tariff designs.

Distributed energy project development, Antigua & Barbuda

ECA developed a project concept to set up a financial mechanism for investment in PV and energy storage in households and commercial buildings in Antigua and Barbuda. The project also addressed issues of dealing with waste within the sector.

Long and medium-term energy development plan, Indonesia

As part of the development of a sector-wide plan, ECA assessed options to accelerate the uptake of various forms of e-mobility across Indonesia, examining the potential implications on the networks, and identified suitable priority projects, such as a super-charger grid across Java and the electrification of bus fleets, for inclusion in the development plan.

Decarbonisation of heating and cooling, Montenegro

ECA prepared an updated Comprehensive Assessment and Action Plan to decarbonise heating and cooling in Montenegro. Work included a spatial cost-benefit assessment of financially and economically attractive solutions, scenarios for the necessary roll-out of technical solutions to meet forecast demand by end-use sector, and provision of a set of recommended policy actions to achieve this transition.

Small-scale renewable energy framework development, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Uzbekistan

ECA worked with the EBRD and the relevant government ministries across three assignments to develop frameworks to support the expansion of small-scale renewable energy, predominantly rooftop solar. The project assessed different regulatory models – net metering, net billing, and feed-in tariffs – and included the development of secondary legislation, amendments to the grid code, and a roadmap for expansion.

Feasibility of rooftop solar initiative, Ghana

ECA developed a feasibility study, project design, and implementation recommendations for the Government of Ghana’s “Government Goes Solar” initiative. The assignment included assessing the market for rooftop solar, selecting 30 public buildings to benefit from rooftop solar PV systems, and recommending an institutional structure to implement the project.

Development of Pacific e-mobility framework, Pacific region

ECA was contracted to establish an e-mobility framework for all 11 Pacific Island Countries (PICs). This involved modelling the impact of increased e-mobility uptake deployment on the power grids of the PICs, many of which contain a high level of variable renewable energy, researching international best practices, and developing technical guidelines. The final output was a roadmap outlining steps to increase the deployment of e-mobility across the PICs to support the decarbonisation of the transport and energy sectors.

Market assessment, design of financial support mechanisms, and capacity building for rooftop solar, North Macedonia

ECA developed the principles of a cost-effective policy, regulatory, and promotional framework for accelerating rooftop solar PV in North Macedonia. This included reviewing, analysing, and recommending the off-take arrangements (compensation), governing regulations, technical standards, and processes, including grid connection, and developing business models and supportive financial mechanisms.