ECA’s experience in North Africa and the Middle East is focused on the electricity, natural gas and water and sanitation sectors. We have conducted gas and electricity pricing studies, long term energy policy planning studies, regulatory reviews and sustainable energy market assessments.

In gas, we have advised on establishing new gas markets, gas-to-power projects, tendering of gas distribution licences and the policy for long term development of gas sectors covering domestic and export policy.

In water, we have worked on projects involving private sector water provision and water sector regulation. Our countries of experience include Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia and Yemen.



Middle East gas market expert witness

ECA provided expert witness advice in an international arbitration case on the potential of gas export volumes and pricing levels in a country in the Middle East. Issues of particular relevance were the assessments of offtake markets, price levels and damage claim valuations, export licencing conditions, export and domestic infrastructure assessments and reviews of existing long term gas masterplans.

Electricity cost of service study, Lebanon

Study on behalf of the Ministry of Energy and Electricite du Liban (EDL) to help identify the tariff levels necessary to recover EDL’s costs and lower the levels of support needed from the Government, and to advise on tariff designs. The focus was particularly on a path of cost efficiency improvements and improved supply reliability so that tariff reforms would be more acceptable to electricity users.

Regulatory and market assessment of the electricity and gas sectors, Egypt

ECA prepared a Report for the EBRD, assessing the electricity and gas regulatory and market frameworks with the aim of benchmarking them against international standards (particularly the EU), providing a clear analysis of the progress of reform and identifying gaps as well as future reform needs.

Support in negotiation of PPA

ECA acted as commercial advisor to a national utility in negotiations over a power purchase agreement with a proposed 450 MW combined-cycle power plant.

Power sector reform strategy, Egypt

Egypt wanted to learn from the experience of comparator countries in developing a transitional road map to a competitive electricity market. The objective of this consultancy was to provide the Government with information on the experience of relevant international comparator countries to inform Egyptian thinking on two policy issues that required urgent definition: the road map for transition to a competitive electricity market and parameters for the establishment of an energy planning entity.

Wheeling charges, Jordan

Recommendations on electricity network wheeling charges suitable to a competitive electricity market when such a market is created and, before then, to allow renewable energy generators to transport electricity to contracted consumers.

Lebanon energy policy

Developed an Energy Strategy for Lebanon covering power generation, gas sector development, energy efficiency and renewable energy strategy. Combining existing Government commitments, the ECA team provided a summarised policy highlighting and addressing the key challenges faced by the energy sector in Lebanon.

Assessment of sustainable energy investment potential, Egypt

ECA prepared a Report for the EBRD, assessing the electricity and gas regulatory and market frameworks with the aim of benchmarking them against international standards (particularly the EU), providing a clear analysis of the progress of reform and identifying gaps as well as future reform needs.

Israel gas transmission tariffs

Israel’s Natural Gas Authority requested advice on the methodology for the Israeli transmission tariff model, taking into account that INGL must maintain certain coverage ratios in relation to its debentures and credit rating. This included a review of international methodologies and a calculation of the appropriate return for Israel’s TSO.

Gas distribution and LPG regulation, Saudi Arabia

ECA was assigned to develop a high level regulatory framework and clear guidelines to guide the Saudi Government (KSA) all players and related entities in creating gas networks to supply residential consumers and in opening up the LPG distribution market to competition. The developed regulation was to clearly identify roles, responsibilities and functions of the entities and to specify regulations and other rules governing geographical coverage, obligations, licensing arrangements, tariffs, tendering, standards, etc.

Egypt gas pricing

ECA worked with the Government of Egypt to help establish a consistent approach to manage the process of fuel subsidy reforms over the next five-year period, including specific components on communications and social protection. The key issue for this study was identifying the principles of gas pricing and how they should be applied over time as Egypt reforms its gas sector.

Development of solar water heater (SWH) programme for Jordan

As part of a framework contract for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in the SEMED region, ECA developed a national plan for the integration of solar water heaters (SWH) in Jordan. The team recommended on the financial viability of SWH development and the level of subsidy requirements, on the economic viability of SWH dissemination and on a viable business model for the greater integration of SWH and the role for EBRD credit guarantees. The recommendations were used to develop a national SWH programme and to clarify the role of EBRD in the SWH market in Jordan.

Egypt gas flaring regulations, Egypt

ECA advised the Government of Egypt on a suitable regulatory framework to reduce associated petroleum gas (APG) flaring and venting levels at upstream production sites.