ECA conducted a global study to find out what policies, institutions and regulatory (PIR) incentives have been used in practice and how these can be combined to further improve water supply and sanitation (WSS) services. The study involved a literature review of existing theories on IPR incentives, development of case studies to illustrate findings, and development of a framework that can be used to design appropriate IPR incentives to improve WSS services. The result of this study has been published and can be seen on this link: STUDY