Infrastructure Policy Services from Economic Consulting Associates


ECA has extensive experience in assisting the public sector to formulate energy and water sector polices, based on sound economic principles. We also provide readily implementable sectoral strategies to give effect to the policies.

ECA works with key stakeholders, aiming to forge a consensus around the policies and strategies, thereby providing assurance that they will be adopted and acted upon.



Botswana renewable energy strategy (RES)

The RES study undertaken by a team led by ECA focussed on the potential for utility-scale solar power to contribute to Botswana’s power generation mix. The strategy included recommendations on policy and the legal, institutional and regulatory architecture to facilitate the envisaged contribution of renewables to power generation. The study included a significant training component for staff from the Department of Energy and the Botswana Power Corporation.

Nigeria electrification prospectus

The work involved a review of the readiness of the institutions to implement the proposed electrification roll-out; an assessment of the enabling framework for electrification; recommendations on targeted subsidies in support of the programme; and drafting of the financing prospectus.

Vietnam LNG Policy

ECA advised on a natural gas pricing framework in which liquefied natural gas (LNG) is purchased at market-linked prices and can be recovered at some point in the electricity supply chain. This would enable the gas sector overall to potentially triple in size while moving from the previous differentiated gas prices to a more unified pricing structure compatible with a competitive power market.

Pakistan gas sector restructuring

Pakistan is in the process of introducing LNG and providing greater incentives for increased domestic gas production. ECA led a team assessing the potential impacts on customers of the entry of higher-priced new gas supplies and how these can be best managed while still ensuring the creditworthiness of counterparties for new gas supply agreements. The conclusions of the project were presented at senior levels of Government and have become the basis for future Government policy

Montenegro national renewable energy action plan

ECA provided legal, regulatory and economic advice to the MoE, focussing on support in development of the National Renewable Energy Action Plan for submission to the EU under the Energy Community Treaty. This included development of forecast trajectories and modelling of impacts.

Ukraine gas sector reform

The aim of this assignment was to support the Government of Ukraine and Naftogaz with assessing the unbundling options for the transmission and storage business lines, and to develop a feasible and reasonable implementation plan for the restructuring model. This evaluation entailed ensuring conformity with the EU’s 3rd energy package and other criteria, including the facilitation of competition.

Egypt electricity reform

Egypt wanted to learn from the experience of comparator countries in developing a transitional road map to a competitive electricity market. The objective of this consultancy was to provide the Government of Egypt with a rapid digest of the experience of a handful of relevant international comparator countries to inform Egyptian thinking on two policy issues that required urgent definition: the road map for transition to a competitive electricity market and parameters for the establishment of an energy planning entity.

Renewable energy laws and feed in tariffs, Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is developing a revised Renewable Energy Law that introduces a Feed-in Tariff regime. To implement this, a secondary regulation is needed to allocate the costs of RES support amongst all buyers of RES. ECA was tasked to develop the secondary regulation and bilateral agreement as well as to review the renewables power purchase agreement.

Regional gasification, Southeast Europe

ECA analysed the scope for increased gasification in the nine-country region and the potential for it to benefit through greater competition and improved security of supply from imports of Caspian and Middle Eastern gas via Turkey.

Ghana gas masterplan

ECA was appointed by the Government of Ghana to develop a national medium to long term gas strategy. This included recommendations on an optimised gas infrastructure plan, prioritised gas allocation across exports and domestic utilisation options and a suitable pricing, regulatory and institutional framework for implementation of the gas strategy.

Water and sanitation finance facility, Indonesia

The Facility had been designed in an earlier ECA study – the subsequent project was to assist in implementing the sector financing strategy through consensus-building within government and working closely with the chosen host agency, PIP (Indonesia Investment Agency), to develop the operational manual and procedures for PIP, the water utilities (PDAMs) and local governments.

Indonesia gas masterplan

The project developed a new gas development master plan (GDMP) which serves as a guide to the necessary infrastructure investments required over the period to 2025. Given the uncertainty over supply sources and future prices and, hence, demand for gas, the project looked at a number of scenarios for the future market.

Fiji energy sector policy review

ECA led the preparation of a Sustainable Energy For All (SE4ALL) assessment of Fiji’s energy sector, the preparation of a new energy policy and strategic action plan, and an analysis of the legislative framework. The energy policy included recommendations on institutional arrangements for the energy sector.